Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc Book II Found in For anyone interested in how much fiction and how much historical fact is in Twain’s Joan of Arc, here are page by page
notes that I took when researching his book. So many of the events are so easily verified as historical that I began flagging
fictional events rather than historical ones. The following are purely fictional characters invented by Mark Twain:
by Mark Twain copyright 1896
Reviewed by Maurice A. Williams
Penguin Books USA
Joan of Arc Book Two is on pages 613 through 838
The Paladin (title for King’s helper) Edmund Aubrey, a childhood friend of Joan’s.
Noel Rainguesson, another childhood friend of Joan’s
613 CHAPTER I
613 January 5, 1429, Joan visited Louis de Conte, along with Uncle Laxart, to tell him “Now is the time! In two months I shall be with the Dauphin.” She asked Louis who were the two cavaliers who sat next to him when she last visited the governor of Vaucouleurs. Louis said they were Sier Jean de Novelonpont de Metz, the other Sier Bertrand de Poulengy.
For anyone interested in how much fiction and how much historical fact is in Twain’s Joan of Arc, here are page by page notes that I took when researching his book. So many of the events are so easily verified as historical that I began flagging fictional events rather than historical ones.
The following are purely fictional characters invented by Mark Twain:
615 CHAPTER II
615 A few days later Uncle Laxart took Joan to Vaucouleurs and found lodging for her with Catherine Royer. A prophecy of Merlin, more than eight hundred years old, was brought to mind, prophesying that France would be lost by a woman and restored by a woman. France was now lost by a woman Queen Isabel of Bavaria (wife of Charles VI) and doubtless, Joan is the one who restore France. [This is true (Pernoud, Her Own Words, p. 33), Also For some years before and around the time of activity of Joan of Arc, a number of vague prophecies concerning a young Maid who would save France were circulating. The prophecies were attributed to several sources, including St. Bede the Venerable, Euglide of Hungary, and Merlin. Some of these spoke of a Maid who was supposed to come from the "borders of Lorraine". Since Joan's village was near the border between France and the Duchy of Lorraine in the Holy Roman Empire, at the time many in France believed in her. During her examination at Poitiers, Joan was reportedly questioned about a recent prophecy attributed, perhaps incorrectly, to Marie d'Avignon concerning an armed woman who was to save the Kingdom. One version of the prophecies had it that the Maid would come forth from an oak wood and would work miracles, although when questioned about this version of the prophecy at her trial, Joan said she didn't place any faith in that one. Rehabilitation trial testimony also brought up the subject of such prophecies. Durand Laxart, Joan's uncle, who accompanied Joan on both of her journeys to Vaucouleurs, reported at the rehabilitation trial that Joan had told him: "Was it not said that France would be ruined through a woman and afterwards restored by a virgin?” Catherine Royer, with whom Joan stayed while at Vaucouleurs on her second visit in January and February of 1429, also reported substantially the same thing. In any case, it is known that such prophecies were widely known in France at around that time and that many in France among the supporters of the Dauphin identified Joan with the Maiden in the prophecies and this identification contributed to her popularity and following.]
616 The fame of this spread, and many came to Domremy to see the events. Joan again went to the governor of Vaucouleurs, and he again refused to send her to the Dauphin. Sieur Jean de Novelonpont de Metz, however, was intrigued.
617 He spoke to Joan a while, then knelt and placed his hand insides Joan’s in a sign of fealty and made oath that by God’s help he himself would take her to the Dauphin [True Pernoud (Her Story, p. 19]. The next day Sieur Bertrand de Poulengy also pledged his oath. That day, also, a rumor spread that the governor was going to visit Joan in her humble lodgings.
618 The governor (Robert de Baudricourt) came. He had decided that Joan was either a witch or a saint. He brought a priest with him to exorcise the devil within her if there was one. The priest performed his office and found no devil in her. He offended Joan’s piety for he had already heard her confession and he should have known that devils cannot abide the confessional [I'm impressed that Mark Twain had no criticism of this pious attitude about confession]. The governor went away troubled. Several days later, on February 14, Joan went to the castle and said: “In God’s name Robert de Baudricourt, you are too slow about sending me, and have caused damage thereby, for this day the Dauphin’s cause has lost a battle near Orleans, and will yet suffer greater injury if you do not send me to him soon.” Robert told her to wait in peace. If what she said turns out to be true, he will give her a letter and send her to the Dauphin. Joan said “In nine days you will fetch me the letter.” [This is true Pernoud Her Story, page 266].
619 The people of Vaucouleurs equipped Joan with a horse and armor. Her brothers practiced riding the horse. On June 20, Joan called her army together: the two knight, her two brothers, and Louis. She told them she will have word on March 23.
620 On March 23, at 10 PM [Pernoud Her Story, puts this date in late February 1429], the governor came to her lodging and gave her the letter to the Dauphin and gave her his sword also. He had received word that the battle was lost. This battle is known to history as the Battle of Herrings. [It happened on 12Feb1429. The French army, numbering between 3000 and 4000, confronted the much smaller English force [led by Sir John Fastolf] who had set up defensive positions by drawing up the supply wagons [he was bringing to the resupply the forces of William de la Pole (the Duke of Suffolk). He put his wagons into a circle to form a make-shift fortification. The French attack began with a bombardment using gunpowder artillery, a relatively new weapon for the time and one whose proper usage was not well understood. The 400-strong Scottish infantry, contrary to the orders of the Count of Clermont (Pernoud states that "Clermont sent message after message forbidding any attack") went on the attack against the English formation. This, according to deVries, forced the premature cessation of the artillery bombardment out of fear of striking their own forces. The Scots were not well protected by armor and great damage was visited upon them by the English archers and crossbowmen who were shooting from behind the protection of their wagon fort. At this point, the English, seeing that the remaining French forces were slow to join the Scots in the attack (Pernoud quotes the Journal du siege d'Orléans to the effect that the remaining French forces "came on in a cowardly fashion, and did not join up with the constable and the other foot soldiers"), decided themselves to go on a counterattack. They struck the rear and flanks of the disorganized French/Scottish forces and put them to flight. Pernoud states that the combined French/Scottish forces lost about 400 men, including Stewart, the leader of the Scots. Among the wounded was Jean de Dunois, known also as the Bastard of Orléans, who barely escaped with his life and who would later play such a crucial role, along with Joan of Arc, in the lifting of the siege of Orléans and the French Loire campaign which followed. Pernoud Her Story, page 266, says Joan announced this to Robert de Baudricourt on 12 Feb 1429.622 CHAPTER III
628 End of section on The Paladin.
629 CHAPTER IV
In the morning, Joan called the men to quarters, then made three night marches of 12-13 leagues each then five more might marches, having skirmishes and some fatalities along the way. (Skirmishes probably fictional).
630 Some men thought Joan a witch and plotted her murder.
631 The ringleader, caught, was spared by Joan, but Joan said to him: “It is a pity that you should plot another’s death when your own is so close at hand.” That man’s horse stumbled and fell in the first ford they crossed that night, and the man drowned. (This might be true, but I can’t fine historical documentation. Two of the movies about Joan also depict this).
632 They are halted by the enemy who mistakes them for their own soldiers. Joan bluffs them and is allowed to proceed and destroy a bridge so The Maid can’t use it [probably fictional].
636 The tenth night’s march was the hardest, but they finally arrived at the city of Gien.
637 CHAPTER V
637 They are now within six leagues of the Dauphin. Joan dictates a letter to the Dauphin to be written by Louis de Conte.
638 More characterization of Edmund Aubrey.
639 There were twelve Paladins of Charlemagne (after France had been formed by Charlemagne’s grandfather Charles Martel).
641 Georghes de la Tremouville, advisor to the Dauphin. Yolande, Queen of Sicily, mother-in-law to Charles VI (Dauphin), and a good woman. Sieur Bertrand, already in Joan’s company.
641 The Dauphin received the letter but is counseled to stall.
642 Ravol de Gaucort, grandmaster of the Dauphin and supporter of the Archbishop of Rheims (Cauchon) – will later support Joan.
645 The Dauphin sends a deputation of priests to get Joan’s message. Joan refuses. Joan and her party are staying at an inn.
648 CHAPTER VI
648 Yolande, Queen of Sicily, persuades the Dauphin to receive Joan. Yolande sends fine clothes for Joan and her party to wear.
649 Joan and party enter the Dauphin’s hall.651 The Dauphin had an imposter sitting on the throne. (Actually, the dauphin merely withdrew slightly from the crowd, Pernoud, Her Story, p. 23). Joan recognizes the Dauphin.
652 Joan tells the Dauphin the secret. The Dauphin is convinced.
654 The Dauphin invites Joan and her party to reside in the palace. He assigns his own guard to escort her to the inn and fetch her belongings.
655 CHAPTER VII
655 Whole chapter is about bravado of Edmund Aubrey (The Paladin)
661 End of bravado of The Paladin.
662 CHAPTER VIII
662 The Dauphin’s advisers get him to worry that Joan may be influenced by the Devil. The Dauphin no longer firmly believes and wavers in his conviction that Joan is authentic. The Dauphin’s relative (Probably a cousin), the Duke of Alencon, prisoner for three years in an English prison, has been released three days ago. He comes to visit Joan and soon professes his loyalty to her and becomes an important ally.
663 The Dauphin sends a group of priests and scholars to examine Joan to see if she is influenced by God or the Devil. They report that they can’t tell. They suggest a more experienced study by the doctors of the University of Poitiers. Rest of chapter covers the examination. Joan held her own during questioning, and, in the evenings, when the scholars and other interested people visited her, she was so honest and charming that they all believed her.
669 Their verdict: Joan is a good Christian and Catholic, nothing in her contrary to the Faith, and the Dauphin may do well to heed her.
670 CHAPTER IX
670 The verdict made a prodigious stir. The people are joyous for Joan [March 1429].
671 The Dauphin pronounces that he has granted Joan to be General-in-chief of the Armies of France. Under her will be Generals La Hire, Saintrailles, the Bastard of Orleans, and others.
673 CHAPTER X
673 Joan’s first act was to dictate a letter to the English commander at Orleans. She sends De Metz to fetch an old sword from behind the altar at St. Catherine’s at Fierbois (mentioned above) [Pernoud Her Story, page 16].
674 She designs her Standard (Flying Banner).
677 Joan appoints The Paladin to carry her banner.
678 CHAPTER XI
679 Joan sends La Hire to take control of new raucous recruits at Blois.
680 Uniforms were made for Joan and her close friends.
681 Joan gets ready to march to Blois, her first military venture.
682 CHAPTER XII
682 They arrived at Blois in three days. Joan meets La Hire.
683 They like each other. Joan tells La Hire that all loose women have to leave the camp, the soldiers must stop excessive drinking and not swear; the must confess their sins and attend religious services twice a day.
687 La Hire’s famous prayer: “Fair Sir God, I pray you to do by La Hire as he would do to you if you were La Hire and he was God” [True (Pernoud, Her Story, p. 188)].
688 CHAPTER XIII
688 We marched out (from Blois) in great strength. Joan’s army was composed of several divisions led by Generals La Hire, the Marshall de Boussac, the Sire de Retz, Florent d’Illiers, and Ponton de Saintrailles. The Dauphin’s orders were “Obey the General-in-chief in everything; attempt nothing without her knowledge, do nothing without her command.”
689 Instead, the Generals thought Joan too inexperienced to wage war, and they countermanded her first order: to march to Orleans and attack. They had the army march to the wrong side of the river. [True, Joan was said to be angry about this (Pernoud Her Story, page 46)].
691 Dunois, Bastard of Orleans, rode up to meet Joan. She said “Are you the Bastard of Orleans?” “And did you advise that I be brought by this side of the river instead of straight to Talbot and the English?” “In Gods name, my lord’s counsel is safer and wiser than yours. You thought to deceive me, but you have deceived yourselves . . .” [True (Pernoud Her Story, page 40)].
692 Joan continued to scold Dubois. She takes the army back to Blois so they can return on the correct side of the river [none of the movies about Joan of Arc show this].
695 CHAPTER XIV
695 The next morning, Saturday April 30, 1429, Joan gets ready to march again from Blois. She dictates a letter to the English defending the siege at Orleans asking them to surrender [True (Pernoud Her Story, page 267)].
696 The next day she sent Dubois (the Bastard) back to Blois to take charge of the rest of the army.698 CHAPTER XV
702 Louis de Conte composes a poem about Catherine.
706 CHAPTER XVI
706 The Paladin (the fictional Edmund Aubrey) tells Joan he heard that the English plan on sending men to strengthen the stronghold she plans to attack.
707 Joan revises her plans and call for an advance at 5 AM the next morning.
708 On their way, Joan encounters a prisoner the French plan to hang for desertion.
710 Joan pardons him. He is The Dwarf, a fictional character that becomes Joan’s page.
713 They reach the English fort, but the English, because of their uneasiness about Joan, did not fire at them. The Bastard tells Joan that the English are expecting reinforcements under Sir John Falstaff. Joan once again scolds the Bastard saying: “Bastard, Bastard, In God’s name I warn you to let me know of his coming as soon as you hear of it, for if he passes without my knowledge you shall lose your head” [True (Pernoud Her Story, page 43)].
714 Joan, realizing that the English plan to move troops from the fortifications to the South to reinforce the one she planned to attack, changes her plans and decides to attack the ones from which the English troops will be moved.
715 CHAPTER XVII
715 Twain characterizes fictional characters (The Paladin) some more.
717 Ghosts in Catherine Boucher’s house? (Probably Fictional) And 723
718 CHAPTER XVIII
718 As Louis de Conte was chatting with Madame Boucher, Catherine interrupts and tells Louis that Joan is getting ready for battle. She is saying: “French blood is flowing—Give me my arms!”
719 Catherine was correct! They all hear the noise of battle. The English garrison of St. Loup had attacked. Joan repulses them.
720 Dunois, the Bastard, arrives with his troops, and wants to attack. Joan tells him: “Wait!”
721 Then Joan said: “Waste no more time—Let the bugles sound . . .“ At that moment, La Hire arrives with his troops and the French forces destroy the bastilles St. Loup.
722 Joan spared some priests that were taken prisoner.
723 CHAPTER XIX
723 While Joan is resting after the victory, Catherine takes the Paladin, Louis de Conte, Jean de Metz, and the Dwarf to the haunted room in her house.
725 They heard noises and groans behind a wall, so the Dwarf smashed it down with his axe. The room was empty. That’s all Louis knows (probably fictional).
726 CHAPTER XX
726 The next day, Joan wanted to go against the enemy, but Dunois and the generals wanted to plan a different strategy.
727 They discuss the different strategies, but Joan insists to give them orders to attack tomorrow, and assures them that they will win the battle by storm.
728 After Joan leaves, La Hire tells the generals: “She is only a child, and that is all you seem to see . . . by God, I think she can teach the best of you how to [wage] war.”
729 The next morning, Joan had the men attack The Augustine bastilles. The English began to take the advantage, and the French troops began to panic and retreat. Joan cries out: “If there is but a dozen of you that are not cowards, it is enough—follow me!” And she charges at the English. Her charge threw the English in a panic. They thought she was a witch, a child of Satan, and the English ran. The French saw what was happening and pursued and won the battle (Victor Fleming’s Joan of Arc has this as the first battle).
730 With the Augustine bastilles fallen, Joan plans to take the Tourelles tomorrow.
731 CHAPTER XXI
731 Joan retires for the night with Catherine (Boucher). She tells Catherine that she will be wounded tomorrow (the 7 of May, 1429), but Catherine is not to worry about it.
735 Pasquerel, Joan’s confessor, introduces the Sire de Rais with a message from the French council (either of Orleans or the one that advises the Dauphin). The message says that enough has been done for the present. It would be safest and best to be content with what God has already done. Orleans is now well stocked with food and able to stand a long siege. The wise course would be to withdraw the troops from the side of the river where the Tourelles stand to the opposite side of the river and assume the defensive rather than the offensive. Joan said: “The incurable cowards! So this is why they had my generals to encourage me to rest in the city. Then she tells her confessor to rise early and stay by me. I shall be wounded today.
736 CHAPTER XXII
736 The next morning Joan tells her companions that her army is going to raise the siege of Orleans.
737 However, the council had already ordered Raoul de Gaucourt, Bailey of Orleans, to close the gate exiting Orleans (the Burgundy Gate). Joan told Gaucourt that there are no higher orders than from the King. If Gaucourt had orders from the King, show them. When she was told that Gaucourt could not claim his orders are from the King, Joan had her men charge through the gate (I don’t see historical confirmation of this).
738 Joan barges out of the city and attacks the English. She is wounded in the shoulder by scrap of iron (Twain says a bolt) shot from cannon [First battle injury when fighting at Orleans].
739 There is a ten minute struggle between English soldiers trying to finish Joan off and French soldiers intent of protecting Joan. The fictional character, The Dwarf, defends Joan.
740 Later Joan hears the sound of French retreat. She rises and charges back into the battle and tells the Paladin to let her know when the fringes of her banner tough the wall of the fortification. When it does she shouts: “Now then, the place is yours—enter in. Bugles, sound the assault.” At the same time that the banner touches the fortification, five cannon shots signaled the arrival of La Hire with more troops.
741 Many English soldiers perish in the collapse of the bridge near the fortification. Glasdale, who insulted Joan a few days earlier, falls through bridge and drowns [8 May 1429].
742 Twain says no other girl in all of history has ever reached such a summit of glory that Joan reached that day in raising the siege of Orleans.
743 CHAPTER XXIII
743 The next morning, Talbot and his remaining forces evacuate their bastilles, leaving behind all food they had accumulated. The people of Orleans took all the food and arms the English left behind and burnt the fortifications and celebrated. The Dauphin came to visit Joan. Twain did not have kind words to say about the Dauphin.
744 Twain describes Charles VII (the Dauphin) as having long hair (a bush of stiff hair).
746 The Dauphin asks Joan what she would like as a reward for her accomplishment. She said “only one thing—march with her to Rheims and receive your crown. The Dauphin was afraid to do so.
747 Joan tried to talk him into more courage; then it became obvious that his fear came from La Tremouille, the King’s advisor, who told Joan that matters of State are not proper matters for public discussion.”
748 Joan asked pardon. She did not know that matters connected with his department of government were matters of state. La Tremouille said he is the Dauphin’s chief minister. How is it that Joan does not realize that matters connected with his department are not matters of state? Joan said because there is no state. France at the moment is too small. A sheriff’s constable can manage what is left of France. The term "matters of state" is too large. Joan then again begs the Dauphin to go to Rheims and be crowned [probably a fictional conversation].
749 Charles knights Joan “Du Lis” and confers nobility on all her family [This is historical (Pernoud Her Story, page 81)].
751 CHAPTER XXIV
751 Fictional characters discuss what has happened.
754 CHAPTER XXV
754 The army got no pay and began to break up. Joan went to the castle of the Loches, where the Dauphin was, and urged him to go to Rheims.
755 Joan convinced the Dauphin to call up a new army. Eight thousand men came.
756 The Dauphin presented the two young counts de Laval to Joan.
757 Joan promises the Duchess of D’Alencon that her husband, the Duke of Alencon shall return from the fighting without a hurt [Pernoud Her Story, page 57].759 The Dauphin tells his generals “See to it that you do nothing without the sanction of the maid.”
760 Joan’s bold plan of attack and storm concerns some of the generals who advised caution and investment by siege. La Hire, and others, argued to trust Joan. Later Joan assures them that: “I know that God guides us and will give us success.”
763 CHAPTER XXVII
763 Meanwhile the English, under Sir John Fastolfe, expect five thousand men to reinforce Jangeau. Joan’s army reached Jangeau and was attacked by English troops operating outside the fortified city.
764 Joan drove them back within the city, then she sent a summons to the English that if they surrendered she would allow them to go in peace and take their horses with them.
766 The English wanted to stall, but Joan gave them one hour. After one hour, she gave the signal to start the artillery.
767 Then she charged.
768 A large stone crashed down on her helmet while she ascended a siege ladder, crushing her helmet and wounding her in the shoulder [Second battle injury- at Jargeau], but she got back on the ladder again saying: “To the assault friends. The English are ours. It is the appointed hour.” The Bastard ordered the English commander, the Earl of Suffolk, to surrender. The Earl offered to surrender to Joan. The Earl’s two brothers retreated toward the bridge.
769 One brother, Alexander de la Pole, fell overboard and drowned. His brother, Sir John de la Pole, surrendered to Guillaume Renault after knighting him first.
770 CHAPTER XXVIII
770 Catherine Boucher asks Joan to not expose herself to risk.
771 Joan predicts that before two years are spent, she shall die a cruel death. Also that France shall have another great victory in four days (when Meung falls).
772 Louis de Conte tells Joan an untruth—that Fairie Tree has been cut down (fictional).
773 CHAPTER XXIX
773 Fairy tree mentioned again.
774 When Joan arrived at Beaugency, the English retired into the castle and abandoned the town. Talbot was not there. He had gone to welcome Fastolfe and his five thousand men. Joan started bombarding the castle. The French general Richemont, long in disfavor with the Dauphin, approached with his men to help Joan. Joan effects much diplomacy to reconcile the Dauphin and general D’Alencon with Richemont. Next morning, word came that Talbot was approaching with Fastolfe and Fastolfe’s men. Joan left Richemont to watch the castle while she took men to engage Talbot.
775 Talbot set up his defensive position and sent defiant word for Joan to prepare for battle.
776 Joan predicts that this will be the most noble and beneficent victory that God has vouchsafed to Franc at any time.
777 That evening scouts came to report that Talbot appears to be retreating. Joan predicts that now Beaugency will fall at no cost of blood, and when Talbot realizes that Beaugengy has fallen, it will have an effect on him.
778 Joan captures Beaugengy and sends a captured English prisoner to Richard Guetin, who was holding Meung in Talbot’s absence. Guetin surrenders. The whole campaign was over in three days.
779 The English had plunged into the wide plain of La Beauce headed toward Patay. The French patrols stirred up a deer, which bolted toward the hidden English, who shouted when they saw fresh game, giving their position away [True (Pernoud Her Story, page 61)].
780 When Joan’s army arrived, La Hire charged. Later, Joan released troops under the Duke of Alencon and more under the Bastard, just as Fastolfe was bringing relief troops to the English.781 Fastolfe, seeing the English fleeing from La Hire, thought they were fleeing in panic because of Joan, so Falstolfe’s troops panic also. The ensuing battle lasted three hours. When it was over, one-third of the English were dead (2000 out of 6000). This is the battle that Joan said would end English power for a thousand years.
782 Joan sees, in the distance, an English soldier too poor to pay ransom, who is given a mortal wound. Joan rides up and comforts him and, weeping, brings her chaplain to assist him. [Historically correct (Lord Ronald Gower Joan of Arc, p. 82)].
784 Twain analyzes the battles of Joan: first Orleans, then a second one [ Meung], then Patay—a huge victory within three hours of fighting (and seven months of fighting in total). The Hundred Years war started in 1337. France suffered defeats at Crecy, Poitiers, and Agincourt. France by then was ruined with no hope of defeating the English. In seven weeks, Joan turned the long struggle into victory. On Orleans and Meung she struck the English staggering blows; at Patay, she broke the English back.
786 CHAPTER XXXII
786 News of the victory traveled fast throughout France.
787 Joan had Talbot as prisoner when her army marched through the town.
788 CHAPTER XXXIII
788 Orleans was a delirium of felicity. Joan invited the Dauphin, but he didn’t come. He was visiting La Tremouille at Tremouille’s castle at Sully-sur-Loire. At Beaugency, Joan began to reconcile the Dauphin to Constable Richemont. Twain lists five great deeds of Joan: the raising of the siege of Orleans; the victory at Patay; The reconciliation of the Dauphin and Richemont at Sull-sur-Loire; the coronation of the Dauphin at Rheims; and the bloodless march following the coronation. The reconciliation insured that the great work Joan had started would come to fruition.
789 Under the influence of Richemont, The Dauphin finally became a man, a king, a brave, capable, and determined soldier. [Coronation was 17 Jul 1429].
790 Twain relates how he understands Joan’s genius came into play when she has the Dauphin crowned by the Church. (These are Twain’s own words: “Now, then consider this fact, and observe its importance. Whatever the parish priest believes, his flock believes; they love him, they revere him; he is their unfailing friend, their dauntless protector, their comforter in sorrow, their helper in their day of need; he has their whole confidence; what he tells them to do they will do; with a blind and affectionate obedience, come what may. Add these facts thoughtfully together, and what is the sum? This: The parish priest governs the nation. What is the King, then, if the parish priest withdraw his support and deny his authority? Merely a shadow and no king; let him resign. For someone distrustful of ecclesial influence, Mark Twain is certainly open to the influence of the Church in this case.)
792 CHAPTER XXXIV
792 The reconciliation at Loire had as good as opened the road to Rheims. The Dauphin was afraid to travel t Rheims, because of many English fortifications along the way. Joan assured him that the English have been subdued now and will not give them much trouble. They did not have any trouble until they reached Troyes, an English stronghold.
794 Joan offered the English leave to carry their “goods” with them, but soon learned that the “goods’ the surrendering English decided to carry were French prisoners. Then follows a scene with “the Dwarf.”
796 Joan ransoms the prisoners.
797 CHAPTER XXXV
797 We meet again the Grand Master of the king’s household, in whose castle Joan was a guest when she stayed in Chinon when she first arrived to see the Dauphin. Joan made him Bailiff of Troyes with the King’s permission. Then her army and the Dauphin marched on to Rheims. On the way, the city of Chalons surrendered to them. The English and Burundian forces in Rheims decided not to challenge Joan, so the city was open to her.
799 Battle of Patay – over in three hours. This is probably a couple days after Meung. It is probably part of the great victory.800 The Dauphin was anointed with Sante Ampoule, the holy oil, which Twain states was made in heaven and sent by an angel to the Abbe church of St. Remi to anoint King Clovis when he became Christian. All the Kings of France had been anointed with this oil (for about 900 years in 1429) [True (Pernoud Her Story, page 64)].
803 The King told Joan to ask for anything she wants. She asked that her village of Domremy be spared of taxation.805 Twain recounts three great days in Joan’s life: May 8 [raising of the siege of Orleans], June 18 [Battle of Patay], and July 17, [Anointing of Charles VII as King] 1429 [True Pernoud Her Story, page 64].
806 CHAPTER XXXVI
806 When Joan enters Rheims, she sees her father and Uncle Lexart.
807 The King makes them “Guests of Rheims,” but they decide to remain at the Zebra Inn. Twain wrote about how pleased the two felt: “as the good God feels when he looks out on his fleets of constellations plowing the awful deeps of space and reflects with satisfaction they were all His—all His.”
809 “L’Arbre Fre de Boulemount” was sung. Joan tells her father and uncle that her work is done. She plans to go home.
811 Her uncle asks “What if the King commands her to stay?” Joan replies “The King is my lord; I am his servant.”
812 Uncle Laxart tells of a situation with a bull away and beyond the Fairie Tree.
814 CHAPTER XXXVII
814 Joan’s father is ashamed that he once said he would drown his daughter.
818 The King sent a message to Joan asking her to remain as head of the army and withdraw her resignation.
820 CHAPTER XXXVIII
820 Joan enters the council meeting room where the generals are present along with the political advisors to the King (La Tremouille and the Chancellor) and confronts the advisors. I think this scene was invented by Twain as part of his making a novel of Joan’s life. I saw no historical confirmation of the conversation.
824 The council ends with the King giving Joan his sword and saying: “There, the King surrenders. Carry it [the sword] to Paris.”
825 CHAPTER XXXIX
825 Joan wastes no time getting her army ready. She dictates a letter to the Duke of Burgundy advising him to become reconciled to the King of France (Historically true).
826 Twain has the Paladin goes through a long fictional monologue on how he served Joan during the battles, etc.
828 Joan gets started on the march to Paris, but the King, influenced by Tremouille, had them stop for three days at St. Marcoul so he could pray. In the meantime, Bedford came up with a reinforced army, and on July 29. 1429, his army and Joan’s army faced each other and made preparations for battle. But overnight, Bedford reconsidered and retreated with his army closer to Paris.829 The King then listened to his advisors and retreated to Gien. He was told the fifteen day truce had just been concluded, and he should tarry at Gien until the Duke of Burgundy could deliver Paris to the king. On August 12, 1429 Joan’s army was camped near Dampmartin, close to Bedford’s army and hoped for a battle the next day. But Bedford retreated back closer to Paris.
830 Compiegne surrendered to Joan on August 14. On August 14, Joan’s army was two leagues from Senlis. Bedford turned and approached Senlis and challenged Joan to a pitched battle, but, overnight, retreated again. On August 18, Joan entered Compiegne and hoisted the French flag, On August 23, Joan gave the command to march on Paris, but the king retired sulking to Senlis. Within a few days, Creil, Pont-Saint-Maxence, Choisy, Gournay-Sur-Aronde, Remy, La Neufuiller-en-Hez, Moquay, Chantilly, and Saintines surrendered. On August 26, Joan camped at St. Denis, in effect, under the walls of Paris. Bedford lost heart, waived resistance, and retired with his forces to Normandy. (It is around ten cities that surrendered).
831 CHAPTER XL
831 Couriers were sent to the king, but he couldn’t be persuaded to come to St. Denis until September 7. Joan then began an attack on St. Honore. When it fell, she attacked the gates of the city. Joan was struck by a crossbow bolt (third battle injury at St. Honore near Paris) and was carried back from the lines. Her troop’s morale sagged, so she went to the forefront again. The king, at that time, forbade any further assaults.
832 The next morning, Joan learned that D’Alencon had thrown a makeshift bridge across the river Seine. Joan thought she could lead an assault across the bridge, but the king ordered the bridge demolished. Joan decided to call it quits and resigned a second time, but the king would not accept it. Joan’s voices advised her to remain in St. Denis [True (Pernoud Her Own Words, page 134)].
833 La Tremouville urged the king to have Joan moved from St. Denis by compulsion [This is true! At the great trial Joan said she was removed against her will]. The army then (along with Joan?) marched to Gien where the king disbanded it.834 CHAPTER XLI
835 By the end of May, 1430, they were in the vicinity of Compiegne, which was being besieged by the Duke of Burgundy (and had recently been liberated by Joan). Joan decided to go to their aid. She took some men and arrived in the vicinity as dawn was breaking.
837 Joan right away saw the enemy advancing. She clashed with them at Marguy and was repulsed twice. She saw other Burgundians charging from Clairox and knew the English were coming from Venette. She rallied her men and charged and carried Marguy. She them turned and charged the force from Clairox, which had just arrived. As they were fighting, suddenly a panic broke out among her fighting men, and they started to retreat. Joan tried to encourage them to press the attack. Old D’Aulon begged her to retreat while there was still a chance for safety, but she would not. So he seized her horse’s brindle and pulled horse and her along with the retreating men. The French cannon had to stop, and the English and Burgundians took positions behind and in front of the retreating French, who became trapped in an angle formed by the flank of the main roadway and the adjoining causeway. The trapped Frenchmen fought bravely to defend her. Someone in the city ordered the gate to be closed and the drawbridge to be raised, trapping Joan and what remained of her fighting men.
838 Her remaining men were killed or wounded, and Joan, still eager to fight, was pulled off her horse by her cape and taken as prisoner to the Burgundian camp. This was May 24, 1430. Joan of Arc would march no more [True (Pernoud Her Own Words, page 271)]. Joan was captured at Compiegne.
Thus ends “Joan of Arc, Book II". Mark Twain will write one more book about Joan, describing her trial and martyrdom.
Maurice A. Williams
Joan of Arc: By Herself and Her Witnesses, 1990, Regine Pernoud (Author)
Joan of Arc: Her Story, 1999, Regine Pernoud, Marie-Veronique Clin (Authors), Jeremy duQuesnay (Translator)